THE INVESTIGATION OF THE IMPACT OF DIFFERENT FACTORS ON DNA ISOLATION FROM FOOD PRODUCTS: A VERSATILE EXAMPLE; SEAFOOD
Food fraudulent activities are emerging issues for consumer with threatening public health. Mislabeling, species substation are main fraudulent actions in food industry. Due to highly profitable rate of seafood, this industry has also facing with these fraudulent activities. Different analyses have improved for reliable, fast and cheap species identification. While some protein based methods such as Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis ((SDS- PAGE) and Isoelectric focusing (IEF), DNA based techniques are more reliable for species identification. Quality of DNA is the main requirements for success amplification of DNA and therefore trustworthy species classification. This review focuses on the evaluation of different factors on quality of DNA from processed and non-processed seafood. Different processing techniques, extraction methods and target gene properties are discussed. While DNA extraction from fresh fish, non-processed seafood is easy, and purification rate of DNA is high, different processing techniques, food matrices when stored with different indigents and treatment with salt and acid cause to degradation of DNA. High thermal process and pressure treatment main reason of non-success DNA extraction. Different Extraction methods have also effect on quality of DNA based on used chemicals or commercial kits. Targeted gene and fragments properties are other important factors on quality of DNA. Depends on raw material, processing techniques and extraction methods, characteristic of targeted gene differ.